Glossary

Abstract  An abstract is a written summary of a scientific manuscript, clinical trial, or project. Most scientific and medical journals, conferences, and symposiums require a researcher to submit and abstract; it is from this that a determination is made whether or not to allow the work to be presented.
Benign Breast Disease a common condition marked by benign (noncancerous) changes in breast tissue. These changes may include irregular lumps or cysts, breast discomfort, sensitive nipples, and itching.
Biospecimen A specimen of biological material, such as urine, blood, tissue, cells, DNA, RNA, and protein, to be stored in a biorepository for future research.
Cell Line(s) A permanently established cell culture (the procedure of growing or maintining cells in a laboratory) that will proliferate indefinitely given appropriate fresh medium (the nutrient solution in which cells or organs are grown) and space.
Characterize (cells) Identification of cells as those of a particular type.
Contributed Paper A contributed paper is a research paper; a manuscript; a fleshed-out, fully referenced version of the ideas to which the abstract refers.
Control Tissue A control group is the experimental group tested without changing the variable (a defined, changeable factor.)
DNA A self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes (threadlike structures of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.) DNA is the carrier of genetic information. 
Epithelial Relating to the epithelium, the outside layer of cells that covers all the free, open surfaces of the body including the skin, and mucous membranes that communicate with the outside of the body.
Epithelial Relating to the epithelium, the outside layer of cells that covers all the free, open surfaces of the body including the skin, and mucous membranes that communicate with the outside of the body.
Expression - The genetic code stored in DNA is “interpreted” by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism’s phenotype (the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism.)
Gene Regulation Regulation of gene expression (or gene regulation) includes the processes that cells and viruses use to turn the information in genes into gene products (the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene.)
Genomics The study of genes and their function.
H&E Stain (hematoxylin and eosin stain) is a popular staining method in histology (see glossary entry.) [Note: Biological tissue has little inherent contrast in either the light or electron microscope. Staining is employed to both give contrast to the tissue and highlight particular features of interest.]
Heterogeneity The quality of being diverse and not comparable in kind.
Histology The study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.
Investigator (Clinical or Scientific) An investigator is responsible for ensuring that an investigation (research or experiment) is conducted according to the attending protocol.
Lobular Involution Refers to the decrease in size and complexity of the breast ducts which is a result of a gradual loss of breast ductal tissue that occurs as a woman ages. This loss is pronounced as she enters the perimenopausal period.
Normal Breast Breast tissue which is absent of cancer or pre-malignancy and demonstrates appropriate hormonal changes throughout the stages of a woman’s lifespan.
Nulliparity The condition of not having borne a child.
Parity The state or fact of having borne children.
Parous Having given birth one or more times.
Plenary Carrying a general connotation of fullness.  A plenary session or meeting is the part of a contrence when all members of all parties ar in attendance.
Poster A poster is exactly that – a giant “science fair” – like poster containing background information, important data, and images or slides of the researcher’s project or experiment. A poster is one presentation option, along with a contributed paper, a poster  discussion, or a full presentation, for which an abstract can be chosen.
Poster Discussion A poster discussion is a panel-type discussion, led by moderators in front of an audience, and carried by the authors of (usually) several accepted posters at a conference or symposium.
Principal Investigator A (the) lead scientist on a project or clinical trial.
Processor The part of a computer that interprets and executes instructions.
Progenitor A parent or ancestor.
Server A computer system that provides essential services across a network, to private users inside a large organization or to public users in the internet.
Symposium A formal meeting at which several specialists deliver short addresses on a topic or on related topics.
Tissue An aggregate (collection) of cells in an organism that have similar structure and function.
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer a subtype of breast cancer which is clinically characterized as more aggressive and less responsive to standard treatment and is associated with poorer overall patient prognosis.
Virtual Tissue Bank A tissue bank wherein the materials and samples are held (stored) at the local institutions until needed, and then shared through the internet according to the local ethical guidelines.
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